Protocol for a Cross-Cultural Survey Investigating Medical Student Experiences of Feedback: A Comparison between Jordan and the United Kingdom

Activity: Talk or presentationOral presentation


Research Aim
To develop and deliver a survey to quantitatively test the generalisability of the outputs from the qualitative part of the research project across cultural contexts.

•Primary Objective: To determine if there is a difference in perception of feedback between Jordanian and United Kingdom medical students.
•Key Secondary Objective: To determine the association between demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, and year of study, and experience of feedback within and across Jordan and the United Kingdom.

Research Questions
1.How do specific feedback orientation domains differ between medical students in Jordan and the UK?
2.How do demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and stage of study influence feedback orientation domains in medical students from Jordan and the UK?

Null Hypotheses
•Research Question 1: There is no difference in feedback orientation domains for medical students in Jordan and the UK.
•Research Question 2 regarding Age: Age does not influence feedback orientation domains for Jordanian and UK medical students.
•Research Question 2 regarding Gender: Gender does not influence feedback orientation domains for Jordanian and UK medical students.
•Research Question 2 regarding Year of Study: Year of study does not influence feedback orientation domains for Jordanian and UK medical students.

Survey Design
The survey will be delivered using the JISC online surveys platform. It will be circulated through medical school associations in both the UK and Jordan. Prior to full-scale distribution, the survey platform will be piloted with a small number of students in both countries to gain feedback on the delivery of the platform.

Statistical Methodology
Descriptive and inferential statistics will be utilised. Means and standard deviations, along with 95% confidence intervals, will be calculated for each domain of the feedback orientation scale and the total feedback orientation for medical students from both Jordan and the UK. Independent two-tailed t-tests will be used for statistical comparison. Regression models will also be constructed to describe the association between the feedback orientation scores and demographic characteristics with the inclusion of country as a multilevel component within the model. A complete data analysis will be performed as this is a cross-sectional study and there will be no missing data analysis. The level of statistical significance will be set at p < 0.05. Statistical analysis will be conducted using the Stata software package.

Ethical Considerations
Ethics approval has been granted by King's College London (KCL), reference number LRS/DP-20/21-22615. Informed consent will be obtained from all participants electronically through the online platform.

Questionnaires to be Used
1.Basic Demographics Questionnaire
2.Feedback Orientation Scale

Sampling bias may be encountered if the cohort is not representative of the different medical schools across Jordan and the United Kingdom. To minimise the risk of sampling bias, the sample frame will be matched to the target medical student populations as much as possible; the survey is short and accessible; and reminder emails will be sent to follow up non-responders.
The sample size has been calculated using Stata software and published data for the Feedback Orientation Scale total score mean of 83 and standard deviation of 10 (Lilford et al, 2014). Using Stata software, with a mean of 80 for one country and a lower expected mean of 70 for the other country, standard deviation of 10 and power of 80%, gives a low sample size of 27 in each group to detect a 10-point difference between the 2 groups in Feedback Orientation Scale score. Increasing the power to 90%, with a mean of 80 for one country, 70 for the other country and standard deviation of 20, requires a sample size of 172 (86 students in each country group). To account for incomplete questionnaires, at least 100 responses from each group will be sought. Over-sampling may also mitigate sampling bias.

The study will commence in November 2023, and data will be collected over a six-month timeline.
Period19 Oct 2023
Held atGlobal Cultures Institute