King's College London

Research portal

Dr Reinoud Leenders

  1. Foreign sponsorship of pro-government militias fighting Syria’s insurgency: Whither proxy wars?

    Leenders, R. & Giustozzi, A., 24 Nov 2020, (E-pub ahead of print) In: Mediterranean Politics. 0, 0, p. 1-30 30 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  2. Outsourcing state violence: The National Defence Force, ‘stateness’ and regime resilience in the Syrian war

    Leenders, R. & Giustozzi, A., 2019, In: Mediterranean Politics. 24, 2, p. 157-180 24 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  3. Humanitarianism, State Sovereignty, and Authoritarian Regime Maintenance in the Syrian War

    Leenders, R. & Mansour, K., Jul 2018, In: POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY. 133, 2, p. 225-257 52 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  4. Arab Regimes’ International Linkages and Authoritarian Learning: Toward an Ethnography of Counter-Revolutionary Bricolage

    Leenders, R., 14 Jul 2016, This memo was prepared for the workshop, “International Diffusion and Cooperation of Authoritarian Regimes,” held on June 8–9, 2016 in Hamburg, Germany .

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paper

  5. Master Frames of the Syrian Conflict: Early Violence and Sectarian Response Revisited

    Leenders, R., 4 May 2016, From Mobilization to Counter-Revolution: The Arab Spring in Comparative Perspective. The Project on Middle East Political Science (POMEPS)

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paper

  6. Repression is Not a ‘Stupid Thing’: Regime Responses to the Syrian Uprising and Insurgency

    Leenders, R., May 2016, The ‘Alawis of Syria: War, Faith and Politics in the Levant. Kerr, M. & Larkin, C. (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 245-274 29 p. (Urban conflicts, divided societies).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

  7. The First Time as Tragedy, the Second as Farce? Lebanon’s Nascent Petroleum Sector and the Risks of Corruption

    Leenders, R., 5 Jan 2016, In: Mediterranean Politics. p. 1-24 24 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  8. Authoritarian Learning and Counter-Revolution

    Heydemann, S. & Leenders, R., 12 Sep 2014, The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East. Lynch, M. (ed.). New York: Columbia University Press, p. 75-92 18 p. (Columbia studies in Middle East politics).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

  9. Syria’s uprising and the fracturing of the Levant by Emile Hokayem

    Leenders, R., Mar 2014, In: International Affairs (London). 90, 2, p. 478-479 2 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article reviewpeer-review

  10. The onset of the Syrian uprising and the origins of violence

    Leenders, R., Feb 2014, Politics in the Developing World. Burnell, Randall & Rakner (ed.). 4 ed. Oxford University Press, 25 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  11. How the Syrian Regime Outsmarted Its Enemies

    Leenders, R., Dec 2013, In: CURRENT HISTORY. 112, 758, p. 331-337 7 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  12. Political Corruption in Eastern Europe: Politics after Communism by Tatiana Kostadinova

    Leenders, R., Sep 2013, In: PERSPECTIVES ON POLITICS. 11, 3, p. 884-886 3 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article reviewpeer-review

  13. Lebanon after the Cedar Revolution edited by Are Knudsen and Michael Kerr

    Leenders, R., Jul 2013, In: International Affairs (London). 89, 4, p. 1067-1068 2 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article reviewpeer-review

  14. Authoritarian Governance in Syria and Iran: Challenged, Reconfiguring, and Resilient

    Heydemann, S. & Leenders, R., 2013, Middle East Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and regime Resilience in Syria and Iran. Heydemann, S. & Leenders, R. (eds.). N/A ed. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, Vol. N/A. p. 1-34 34 p. (Stanford studies in Middle Eastern and Islamic societies and cultures).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  15. Middle East authoritarianisms: governance, contestation, and regime resilience in Syria and Iran

    Heydemann, S. & Leenders, R., 2013, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 292 p. (Stanford studies in Middle Eastern and Islamic societies and cultures)

    Research output: Book/ReportBook

  16. Prosecuting Political Dissent: Courts and the Resilience of Authoritarianism in Syria

    Leenders, R., 2013, Middle East Authoritarianisms: governance, contestation, and regime resilience in Syria and Iran. Heydemann, S. & Leenders, R. (eds.). N/A ed. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, Vol. N/A. p. 169-199 31 p. (Stanford Studies in Middle Eastern and Islamic Societies and Cultures).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  17. Social Movement Theory and the Onset of the Popular Uprising in Syria

    Leenders, R., 2013, In: Arab Studies Quarterly. 35, 3, p. 273-289 17 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  18. The Lebanese connection: corruption, civil war, and the international drug traffic

    Leenders, R., 2013, In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 26, 3, p. 606-608 3 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article reviewpeer-review

  19. ’Oh Buthaina, Oh Sha‘ban – the Hawrani is not Hungry, We want Freedom!’: Revolutionary Framing and Mobilization at the Onset of the Syrian Uprising

    Leenders, R., 2013, Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa. Beinin, J. & Vairel, F. (eds.). 2nd revised edition ed. Stanford University Press, p. 246-265 20 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  20. Collective Action and Mobilization in Dar'a: An Anatomy of the Onset of Syria's Popular Uprising

    Leenders, R., Dec 2012, In: MOBILIZATION. 17, 4, p. 419-434 16 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  21. Getting the ‘Ladder of Options’ Right: The Illusive and Real Security Fallout of the Iraqi Refugee Crisis

    Leenders, R., 2012, Transatlantic Cooperation on Protracted Displacement: Urgent Need and Unique Opportunity. Calabrese, J. & Maret, J-L. (eds.). Middle East Institute / Fondation pour la recherché strategique, p. 199-209 11 p.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  22. Popular Mobilization in Syria: Opportunity and Threat, and the Social Networks of the Early Risers

    Leenders, R. & Heydemann, S., 2012, In: Mediterranean Politics. 17, 2, p. 139-159 21 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  23. Authoritarian Learning and Authoritarian Resilience: Regime Responses to the 'Arab Awakening'

    Heydemann, S. & Leenders, R., 2011, In: Globalizations. 8, 5, p. 647-653 7 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  24. Dispossession and Displacement: Forced Migration in the Middle East and North Africa edited by Dawn Chatty and Bill Finlayson

    Leenders, R., 2011, In: Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 24, 2, p. 296-297 2 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article reviewpeer-review

  25. Strong States in A Troubled Region: Anatomies of a Middle Eastern Regional Conflict Formation

    Leenders, R., 2010, In: Comparative Social Research. 27, N/A, p. 171-195 15 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  26. Iraq: People, History, Politics

    Leenders, R., 2009, In: COMPARATIVE SOCIOLOGY. 8, 2, p. 308-310 3 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalBook/Film/Article reviewpeer-review

  27. Refugee Warriors or War Refugees? Iraqi Refugees' Predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    Leenders, R., 2009, In: Mediterranean Politics. 14, 3, p. 343-363 21 p., PII 916756884.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  28. Iraqi Refugees in Syria: causing a spillover of the Iraqi conflict?

    Leenders, R., 2008, In: Third World Quarterly. 29, 8, p. 1563-1584 22 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  29. L’adieu aux armes: la politique des réfugiés irakiens et son impact sécuritaire sur la région

    Leenders, R., 2008, In: Maghreb-Machrek. 198 (hiver), p. 93-123

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  30. Au-delà du ‘pays des deux fleuves’: une configuration conflictuelle régionale?

    Leenders, R., Jan 2007, In: Critique Internationales. 34, 1, p. 61-78 17 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  31. ’Regional Conflict Formations’: Is the Middle East Next?

    Leenders, R., 2007, In: Third World Quarterly. 28, 5, p. 959-982 14 p., N/A.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  32. How UN Pressure on Hizballah Impedes Lebanese Reform

    Leenders, R., 23 May 2006, In: Middle East Report.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  33. How the Rebel Regained His Cause: Hizbullah & the Sixth Arab-Israeli War

    Leenders, R., 2006, In: MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies. Summer, p. 38-56

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  34. Lebanon’s Political Economy: After Syria, an Economic Ta’if?

    Leenders, R., 2006, In: MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies. Summer, p. 188-209

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  35. European Democratization Strategies in Lebanon and Syria

    Leenders, R. & Goes, E., 2005, Crescent of Crisis: US-European Strategy for the Greater Middle East. Daalder, I. H. (ed.). Brookings Inst. Press and the EU Institute for Security Studies, p. 94-113

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  36. Know Thy Enemy: Hizbollah, ‘Terrorism’ and the Politics of Perception

    Harb, M. & Leenders, R., 2005, In: Third World Quarterly. 26, 1, p. 173-197 25 p.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

  37. Nobody Having Too Much to Answer For: Laissez-Faire, Networks and Postwar Reconstruction in Lebanon

    Leenders, R., 2004, Networks of Privilege in the Middle East: The Politics of Economic Reform Revisited. Heydemann, S. (ed.). Palgrave Macmillan, p. 169-200

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

  38. Public Means to Private Ends: State Building and Power in Post-War Lebanon

    Leenders, R., 2003, Politics From Above, Politics from Below: The Middle East in the Age of Economic Reform. Kienle, E. (ed.). Saqi, p. 304-336

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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