3D Printed Models in Patients with Coronary Artery Fistulae: Anatomical Assessment and Interventional Planning

Maria de las Nieves Velasco Forte, Nick Byrne, Israel Valverde Perez, Aaron James Bell, Gorka Gomez-Ciriza, Thomas Krasemann, Sievert Horst, John Simpson, Kuberan Pushparajah, Reza Razavi, Shakeel Qureshi, Tarique Hussain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Aims:Coronary artery fistulas represent one of the most challenging anatomical defects to define accurately. We investigated the additional benefit conferred by volume-rendering of tomographic images and 3D printing for diagnosis and interventional planning.

Methods and results:Four cases of coronary fistulas were considered for transcatheter closure. Multidetector computed tomography (3 cases) or Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (1 case) images were acquired and segmented using Mimics software. Each case was reviewed after incremental consideration of diagnostic resources: two cardiologists reported source and volume-rendered images; device closure was discussed by the interventional cardiology team. All diagnoses and planned management were reviewed after inspection of a 3D model.Using source images alone, both cardiologists correctly described the course and drainage in 2/4 cases. Aided by volume-rendering, this improved to 3/4. Inspection of the 3D printed model prompted the planned interventional approach and device sizing to be altered in 2/4 cases. In 1/4 cases, the intervention was abandoned after inspection of the 3D printed model.

Conclusions: Diagnosis and management of patients with coronary artery fistulas rely on detailed image analyses. 3D models add value when determining feasibility of, and approach to intervention in these cases.
Original languageEnglish
Early online date30 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2017


  • Coronary fistulae
  • Non-invasive imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Multi-slice computed tomography


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