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3D Printing to Simulate Laparoscopic Choledochal Surgery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oliver C. Burdall, Erika Makin, Mark Davenport, Niyi Ade-Ajayi

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Early online date23 Mar 2016
Accepted/In press7 Feb 2016
E-pub ahead of print23 Mar 2016


  • 1-s2 0-S0022346816002098-main

    1_s2_0_S0022346816002098_main.pdf, 249 KB, application/pdf

    Uploaded date:30 Mar 2016

    Version:Accepted author manuscript

    Licence:CC BY-NC-ND

King's Authors


Aims of the Study Laparoscopic simulation has transformed skills acquisition for many procedures. However, realistic non-biological simulators for complex reconstructive surgery are rare. Life-like tactile feedback is particularly difficult to reproduce. Technological innovations may contribute novel solutions to these shortages. We describe a hybrid model, harnessing 3D technology to simulate laparoscopic choledochal surgery for the first time. Methods Digital hepatic anatomy images and standard laparoscopic trainer dimensions were employed to create an entry level laparoscopic choledochal surgery model. The information was fed into a 3D systems project 660pro with visijet pxl core powder to create a free standing liver mould. This included a cuboid portal in which to slot disposable hybrid components representing hepatic and pancreatic ducts and choledochal cyst. The mould was used to create soft silicone replicas with T28 resin and T5 fast catalyst. The model was assessed at a national pediatric surgery training day. Results The 10 delegates that trialed the simulation felt that the tactile likeness was good (5.6/10 +/- 1.71, 10 = like the real thing), was not too complex (6.2/10 +/- 1.35; where 1 = too simple, 10 = too complicated), and generally very useful (7.36/10 +/- 1.57, 10 = invaluable). 100% stated that they felt they could reproduce this in their own centres, and 100% would recommend this simulation to colleagues. Conclusion Though this first phase choledochal cyst excision simulation requires further development, 3D printing provides a useful means of creating specific and detailed simulations for rare and complex operations with huge potential for development.

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