A bipolar taxonomy of adult human brain sulcal morphology related to timing of fetal sulcation and trans-sulcal gene expression gradients

William E Snyder, Petra E. Vértes, Vanessa Kyriakopoulou, Konrad Wagstyl, Logan Z. J. Williams, Dustin Moraczewski, Adam G. Thomas, Vyacheslav R. Karolis, Jakob Seidlitz, Denis Rivière, Emma C. Robinson, Jean-Francois Mangin, Armin Raznahan, Edward T. Bullmore

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Abstract

We developed a computational pipeline (now provided as a resource) for measuring morphological similarity between cortical surface sulci to construct a sulcal phenotype network (SPN) from each magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in an adult cohort (N=34,725; 45-82 years). Networks estimated from pairwise similarities of 40 sulci on 5 morphological metrics comprised two clusters of sulci, represented also by the bipolar distribution of sulci on a linear-to-complex dimension. Linear sulci were more heritable and typically located in unimodal cortex; complex sulci were less heritable and typically located in heteromodal cortex. Aligning these results with an independent fetal brain MRI cohort (N=228; 21-36 gestational weeks), we found that linear sulci formed earlier, and the earliest and latest-forming sulci had the least between-adult variation. Using high-resolution maps of cortical gene expression, we found that linear sulcation is mechanistically underpinned by trans-sulcal gene expression gradients enriched for developmental processes.

Original languageEnglish
PublisherbioRxiv
Number of pages35
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Dec 2023

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