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A fresh look at self-employment, stress and health: Accounting for self-selection, time and gender

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A fresh look at self-employment, stress and health : Accounting for self-selection, time and gender. / Stephan, Ute; Li, Jun; Qu, Jingjing.

In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, Vol. 26, No. 5, 22.05.2020, p. 1133-1177.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Harvard

Stephan, U, Li, J & Qu, J 2020, 'A fresh look at self-employment, stress and health: Accounting for self-selection, time and gender', International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1133-1177. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-06-2019-0362

APA

Stephan, U., Li, J., & Qu, J. (2020). A fresh look at self-employment, stress and health: Accounting for self-selection, time and gender. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 26(5), 1133-1177. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-06-2019-0362

Vancouver

Stephan U, Li J, Qu J. A fresh look at self-employment, stress and health: Accounting for self-selection, time and gender. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research. 2020 May 22;26(5):1133-1177. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-06-2019-0362

Author

Stephan, Ute ; Li, Jun ; Qu, Jingjing. / A fresh look at self-employment, stress and health : Accounting for self-selection, time and gender. In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research. 2020 ; Vol. 26, No. 5. pp. 1133-1177.

Bibtex Download

@article{6f677cb8c01a43108eab945b3a0b8df9,
title = "A fresh look at self-employment, stress and health: Accounting for self-selection, time and gender",
abstract = "Purpose: Past research on self-employment and health yielded conflicting findings. Integrating predictions from the Stressor-Strain Outcome model, research on challenge stressors and allostatic load, we predict that physical and mental health are affected by self-employment in distinct ways which play out over different time horizons. We also test whether the health impacts of self-employment are due to enhanced stress (work-related strain) and differ for man and women. Design/methodology/approach: We apply non-parametric propensity score matching in combination with a difference-in-difference approach and longitudinal cohort data to examine self-selection and the causal relationship between self-employment and health. We focus on those that transit into self-employment from paid employment (opportunity self-employment) and analyze strain and health over four years relative to individuals in paid employment. Findings: Those with poorer mental health are more likely to self-select into self-employment. After entering self-employment, individuals experience a short-term uplift in mental health due to lower work-related strain, especially for self-employed men. In the longer-term (four years) the mental health of the self-employed drops back to pre-self-employment levels. We find no effect of self-employment on physical health. Practical implications: Our research helps to understand the nonpecuniary benefits of self-employment and suggests that we should not advocate self-employment as a “healthy” career. Originality/value: This article advances research on self-employment and health. Grounded in stress theories it offers new insights relating to self-selection, the temporality of effects, the mediating role of work-related strain, and gender that collectively help to explain why past research yielded conflicting findings.",
keywords = "entrepreneurship, MENTAL HEALTH, stress, Strain, time, gender, self-employment, small business, physical health, Health, stressors, Physical health, Mental health, Propensity score matching, United Kingdom, Time, Understanding society, Work-related stress",
author = "Ute Stephan and Jun Li and Jingjing Qu",
year = "2020",
month = may,
day = "22",
doi = "10.1108/IJEBR-06-2019-0362",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "1133--1177",
journal = "International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research",
issn = "1355-2554",
publisher = "Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.",
number = "5",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - A fresh look at self-employment, stress and health

T2 - Accounting for self-selection, time and gender

AU - Stephan, Ute

AU - Li, Jun

AU - Qu, Jingjing

PY - 2020/5/22

Y1 - 2020/5/22

N2 - Purpose: Past research on self-employment and health yielded conflicting findings. Integrating predictions from the Stressor-Strain Outcome model, research on challenge stressors and allostatic load, we predict that physical and mental health are affected by self-employment in distinct ways which play out over different time horizons. We also test whether the health impacts of self-employment are due to enhanced stress (work-related strain) and differ for man and women. Design/methodology/approach: We apply non-parametric propensity score matching in combination with a difference-in-difference approach and longitudinal cohort data to examine self-selection and the causal relationship between self-employment and health. We focus on those that transit into self-employment from paid employment (opportunity self-employment) and analyze strain and health over four years relative to individuals in paid employment. Findings: Those with poorer mental health are more likely to self-select into self-employment. After entering self-employment, individuals experience a short-term uplift in mental health due to lower work-related strain, especially for self-employed men. In the longer-term (four years) the mental health of the self-employed drops back to pre-self-employment levels. We find no effect of self-employment on physical health. Practical implications: Our research helps to understand the nonpecuniary benefits of self-employment and suggests that we should not advocate self-employment as a “healthy” career. Originality/value: This article advances research on self-employment and health. Grounded in stress theories it offers new insights relating to self-selection, the temporality of effects, the mediating role of work-related strain, and gender that collectively help to explain why past research yielded conflicting findings.

AB - Purpose: Past research on self-employment and health yielded conflicting findings. Integrating predictions from the Stressor-Strain Outcome model, research on challenge stressors and allostatic load, we predict that physical and mental health are affected by self-employment in distinct ways which play out over different time horizons. We also test whether the health impacts of self-employment are due to enhanced stress (work-related strain) and differ for man and women. Design/methodology/approach: We apply non-parametric propensity score matching in combination with a difference-in-difference approach and longitudinal cohort data to examine self-selection and the causal relationship between self-employment and health. We focus on those that transit into self-employment from paid employment (opportunity self-employment) and analyze strain and health over four years relative to individuals in paid employment. Findings: Those with poorer mental health are more likely to self-select into self-employment. After entering self-employment, individuals experience a short-term uplift in mental health due to lower work-related strain, especially for self-employed men. In the longer-term (four years) the mental health of the self-employed drops back to pre-self-employment levels. We find no effect of self-employment on physical health. Practical implications: Our research helps to understand the nonpecuniary benefits of self-employment and suggests that we should not advocate self-employment as a “healthy” career. Originality/value: This article advances research on self-employment and health. Grounded in stress theories it offers new insights relating to self-selection, the temporality of effects, the mediating role of work-related strain, and gender that collectively help to explain why past research yielded conflicting findings.

KW - entrepreneurship

KW - MENTAL HEALTH

KW - stress

KW - Strain

KW - time

KW - gender

KW - self-employment

KW - small business

KW - physical health

KW - Health

KW - stressors

KW - Physical health

KW - Mental health

KW - Propensity score matching

KW - United Kingdom

KW - Time

KW - Understanding society

KW - Work-related stress

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85084985747&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1108/IJEBR-06-2019-0362

DO - 10.1108/IJEBR-06-2019-0362

M3 - Article

VL - 26

SP - 1133

EP - 1177

JO - International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research

JF - International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research

SN - 1355-2554

IS - 5

ER -

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