A generic analytical foot rollover model for predicting translational ankle kinematics in gait simulation studies

Lei Ren, David Howard, Luquan Ren, Chris Nester, Limei Tian

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    33 Citations (Scopus)


    The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical framework to representing the ankle-foot kinematics by modelling the foot as a rollover rocker, which cannot only be used as a generic tool for general gait simulation but also allows for case-specific modelling if required. Previously, the rollover models used in gait simulation have often been based on specific functions that have usually been of a simple form. In contrast, the analytical model described here is in a general form that the effective foot rollover shape can be Fe presented by any polar function rho = rho(phi). Furthermore, a normalized generic foot rollover model has been established based on a normative foot rollover shape dataset of 12 normal healthy subjects. To evaluate model accuracy, the predicted ankle motions and the centre of pressure (Col?) were compared with measurement data for both subject-specific and general cases. The results demonstrated that the ankle joint motions in both vertical and horizontal directions (relative RMSE similar to 10%) and CoP (relative RMSE similar to 15% for most of the subjects) are accurately predicted over most of the stance phase (from 10% to 90% of stance). However, we found that the foot cannot be very accurately represented by a rollover model just after heel strike (HS) and just before toe off (TO), probably due to shear deformation of foot plantar tissues (ankle motion can occur without any foot rotation). The proposed foot rollover model can be used in both inverse and forward dynamics gait simulation studies and may also find applications in rehabilitation engineering. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)194 - 202
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Biomechanics
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2010


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