Objectives: To explore differences in regional cortical morphometric structure between adolescents at risk for depression or with current depression. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional structural neuroimaging data from a sample of 150 Brazilian adolescents classified as low-risk (LR) (n=50) or high-risk (HR) for depression (n=50) or with current depression (n=50) through a vertex-based approach with measurements of cortical volume (CV), surface area (SA), and cortical thickness (CT). Differences between groups in subcortical volume and in the organization of networks of structural covariance were also explored. Results: No significant differences in brain structure between groups were observed in whole-brain vertex-wise CV, SA, or CT. Also, no significant differences in subcortical volume were observed between risk groups. In relation to the structural covariance network, there was an indication of an increase in the hippocampus betweenness centrality index in the HR group network compared to the LR and current depression group networks. However, this result was only statistically significant when applying false discovery rate correction for nodes within the affective network. Conclusion: In an adolescent sample recruited using an empirically based composite risk score, no major differences in brain structure were detected according to the risk and presence of depression.