BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an important imaging modality for the assessment and management of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, conventional techniques for three-dimensional (3D) whole-heart acquisition involve long and unpredictable scan times and methods that accelerate scans via k-space undersampling often rely on long iterative reconstructions. Deep-learning-based reconstruction methods have recently attracted much interest due to their capacity to provide fast reconstructions while often outperforming existing state-of-the-art methods. In this study, we sought to adapt and validate a non-rigid motion-corrected model-based deep learning (MoCo-MoDL) reconstruction framework for 3D whole-heart MRI in a CHD patient cohort.

METHODS: The previously proposed deep-learning reconstruction framework MoCo-MoDL, which incorporates a non-rigid motion-estimation network and a denoising regularization network within an unrolled iterative reconstruction, was trained in an end-to-end manner using 39 CHD patient datasets. Once trained, the framework was evaluated in eight CHD patient datasets acquired with seven-fold prospective undersampling. Reconstruction quality was compared with the state-of-the-art non-rigid motion-corrected patch-based low-rank reconstruction method (NR-PROST) and against reference images (acquired with three-or-four-fold undersampling and reconstructed with NR-PROST).

RESULTS: Seven-fold undersampled scan times were 2.1 ± 0.3 minutes and reconstruction times were ∼30 seconds, approximately 240 times faster than an NR-PROST reconstruction. Image quality comparable to the reference images was achieved using the proposed MoCo-MoDL framework, with no statistically significant differences found in any of the assessed quantitative or qualitative image quality measures. Additionally, expert image quality scores indicated the MoCo-MoDL reconstructions were consistently of a higher quality than the NR-PROST reconstructions of the same data, with the differences in 12 of the 22 scores measured for individual vascular structures found to be statistically significant.

CONCLUSION: The MoCo-MoDL framework was applied to an adult CHD patient cohort, achieving good quality 3D whole-heart images from ∼2-minute scans with reconstruction times of ∼30 seconds.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101039
Pages (from-to)101039
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 24 Mar 2024


  • Humans
  • Deep Learning
  • Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Adult
  • Male
  • Female
  • Young Adult
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Time Factors
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine


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