A multi-hazard framework for spatial-temporal impact analysis

Silvia De Angeli*, Bruce D. Malamud, Lauro Rossi, Faith E. Taylor, Eva Trasforini, Roberto Rudari

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper aims to provide a five-step conceptual framework to analyze the impacts to the built environment from multi-hazard interactions. Our methodology includes a critical literature review and stakeholder workshops. This framework's five steps are the following: (I) identify hazards and their interactions, (II) multi-hazard modelling, (III) analysis of the hazards' spatio-temporal evolution of impacts, (IV) identification of impact interactions, (V) a multi-hazard risk or impact assessment. Our approach is based on the systematic analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution of hazards to determine potential impact interactions. In Step IV, we classify the spatial-temporal overlap of hazard impacts into four types: (i) spatial-temporal overlapping, (ii) temporal (but not spatial) overlapping, (iii) spatial overlapping (with residual and subsequent damage), (iv) independent single hazards. Building on current multi-hazard approaches and guidelines, this framework is generally applicable to a broad range of hazards, includes both hazard and impact interactions, and considers residual damage and recovery processes. The framework is applied to a real-world case study in Po Valley, Italy, of a hypothetical damage scenario from an earthquake shock that weakens the levee system, and then combined with intense rain results in a levee collapse and flood. The framework application is supported by a visualization of each step, useful to identify key elements for multi-hazard impact modelling. Practical uses of the framework include the creation of checklists for decision-making, narrowing future research needs in multi-hazard risk, and integrating multi-hazard aspects into international disaster risk management guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102829
JournalInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
Early online date17 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2022


  • Hazard interactions
  • Hazard interrelationships
  • Multi-hazard impact
  • Multi-hazard risk
  • Overlapping hazards

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