A New Classification System for All-Ceramic and Ceramic-like Restorative Materials

Stefano Gracis, Van P Thompson, Jonathan L Ferencz, Nelson R F A Silva, Estevam A Bonfante

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

318 Citations (Scopus)


Classification systems for all-ceramic materials are useful for communication and educational purposes and warrant continuous revisions and updates to incorporate new materials. This article proposes a classification system for ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials in an attempt to systematize and include a new class of materials. This new classification system categorizes ceramic restorative materials into three families: (1) glass-matrix ceramics, (2) polycrystalline ceramics, and (3) resin-matrix ceramics. Subfamilies are described in each group along with their composition, allowing for newly developed materials to be placed into the already existing main families. The criteria used to differentiate ceramic materials are based on the phase or phases present in their chemical composition. Thus, an all-ceramic material is classified according to whether a glass-matrix phase is present (glass-matrix ceramics) or absent (polycrystalline ceramics) or whether the material contains an organic matrix highly filled with ceramic particles (resin-matrix ceramics). Also presented are the manufacturers' clinical indications for the different materials and an overview of the different fabrication methods and whether they are used as framework materials or monolithic solutions. Current developments in ceramic materials not yet available to the dental market are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-235
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Prosthodontics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2015


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