We have previously shown that multimers of plasma pentraxin-3 (PTX3) were predictive of survival in patients with sepsis. To characterize the release kinetics and cellular source of plasma protein changes in sepsis, serial samples were obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 10; three time points) injected with low-dose endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and analyzed using data-independent acquisition MS. The human plasma proteome response was compared with an LPS-induced endotoxemia model in mice. Proteomic analysis of human plasma revealed a rapid neutrophil degranulation signature, followed by a rise in acute phase proteins. Changes in circulating PTX3 correlated with increases in neutrophil-derived proteins following LPS injection. Time course analysis of the plasma proteome in mice showed a time-dependent increase in multimeric PTX3, alongside increases in neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon LPS treatment. The mechanisms of oxidation-induced multimerization of PTX3 were explored in two genetic mouse models: MPO global knock-out (KO) mice and LysM Cre Nox2 KO mice, in which NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) is only deficient in myeloid cells. Nox2 is the enzyme responsible for the oxidative burst in neutrophils. Increases in plasma multimeric PTX3 were not significantly different between wildtype and MPO or LysM Cre Nox2 KO mice. Thus, PTX3 may already be stored and released in a multimeric form. Through in vivo neutrophil depletion and multiplexed vascular proteomics, PTX3 multimer deposition within the aorta was confirmed to be neutrophil dependent. Proteomic analysis of aortas from LPS-injected mice returned PTX3 as the most upregulated protein, where multimeric PTX3 was deposited as early as 2 h post-LPS along with other neutrophil-derived proteins. In conclusion, the rise in multimeric PTX3 upon LPS injection correlates with neutrophil-related protein changes in plasma and aortas. MPO and myeloid Nox2 are not required for the multimerization of PTX3; instead, neutrophil extravasation is responsible for the LPS-induced deposition of multimeric PTX3 in the aorta.