Purpose: Accurate segmentation of brain resection cavities (RCs) aids in postoperative analysis and determining follow-up treatment. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state-of-the-art image segmentation technique, but require large annotated datasets for training. Annotation of 3D medical images is time-consuming, requires highly trained raters and may suffer from high inter-rater variability. Self-supervised learning strategies can leverage unlabeled data for training. Methods: We developed an algorithm to simulate resections from preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs). We performed self-supervised training of a 3D CNN for RC segmentation using our simulation method. We curated EPISURG, a dataset comprising 430 postoperative and 268 preoperative MRIs from 430 refractory epilepsy patients who underwent resective neurosurgery. We fine-tuned our model on three small annotated datasets from different institutions and on the annotated images in EPISURG, comprising 20, 33, 19 and 133 subjects. Results: The model trained on data with simulated resections obtained median (interquartile range) Dice score coefficients (DSCs) of 81.7 (16.4), 82.4 (36.4), 74.9 (24.2) and 80.5 (18.7) for each of the four datasets. After fine-tuning, DSCs were 89.2 (13.3), 84.1 (19.8), 80.2 (20.1) and 85.2 (10.8). For comparison, inter-rater agreement between human annotators from our previous study was 84.0 (9.9). Conclusion: We present a self-supervised learning strategy for 3D CNNs using simulated RCs to accurately segment real RCs on postoperative MRI. Our method generalizes well to data from different institutions, pathologies and modalities. Source code, segmentation models and the EPISURG dataset are available at https://github.com/fepegar/resseg-ijcars.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2021|
- Cavity segmentation
- Lesion simulation
- Resective neurosurgery
- Self-supervised learning