A sensitivity analysis on 3D velocity reconstruction from multiple registered echo Doppler views

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We present a new method for reconstructing a 3D+t velocity field from multiple 3D+t colour Doppler images. Our technique reconstructs 3D velocity vectors from registered multiple standard 3D colour Doppler views, each of which contains a 1D projection of the blood velocity. Reconstruction is based on a scalable patch-wise Least Mean Squares approach, and a continuous velocity field is achieved by using a B-spline grid.

We carry out a sensitivity analysis of clinically relevant parameters which affect the accuracy of the reconstruction, including the impact of noise, view angles and registration errors, using simulated data. A realistic simulation framework is achieved by a novel noise model to represent variations in colour Doppler images based on multiscale additive Gaussian noise. Simulations show that, if the Target Registration Error <2.5mm, view angles are >20° and the standard deviation of noise in the input data is <10cm/s, the reconstructed velocity field presents visually plausible flow patterns and mean error in flow rate is approximately 10% compared to 2D+t Flow MRI. These results are verified by reconstructing 3D velocity on 3 healthy volunteers. The technique is applied to reconstruct 3D flow on three paediatric patients showing promising results for clinical application.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)616-631
Number of pages16
JournalMedical Image Analysis
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013


  • Colour Doppler echocardiography
  • 3D velocity reconstruction
  • Flow patterns
  • Multiple views
  • Image registration
  • FLOW


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