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A spread spectrum approach to time-domain near-infrared diffuse optical imaging using inexpensive optical transceiver modules

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Laura Dempsey, Jeremy Hebden, Simon Arridge, Samuel Powell

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2648-2663
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number6
Early online date10 May 2018
Accepted/In press24 Apr 2018
E-pub ahead of print10 May 2018
Published1 Jun 2018

King's Authors


We introduce a compact time-domain system for near-infrared spectroscopy using a spread spectrum technique. The proof-of-concept single channel instrument utilises a low-cost commercially available optical transceiver module as a light source, controlled by a Kintex 7 field programmable gate array (FPGA). The FPGA modulates the optical transceiver with maximum-length sequences at line rates up to 10Gb/s, allowing us to achieve an instrument response function with full width at half maximum under 600ps. The instrument is characterised through a set of detailed phantom measurements as well as proof-of-concept in vivo measurements, demonstrating performance comparable with conventional pulsed time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy systems.

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