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A study protocol for the COPE study: COVID-19 in Older PEople – the influence of frailty and multimorbidity on survival. A multi-centre, European observational study.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Angeline Price, Fenella Barlow-Pay, Siobhan Duffy, Lyndsay Pearce, Arturo Vilches-Moraga, Susan Moug, Terry J. Quinn, Michael J Stechman, Philip Braude, Emma Mitchell, Phyo Kyaw Myint, Alessia Verduri, Kathryn McCarthy, Ben Carter, Jonathan Hewitt

Original languageEnglish
JournalBMJ Open
Published11 Sep 2020


  • Protocol COPE

    Protocol_COPE.docx, 56.2 KB, application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document

    Uploaded date:14 Sep 2020

    Version:Accepted author manuscript

King's Authors


Introduction This protocol describes an observational study which set out to assess whether frailty and/or multi-morbidity correlates with short and medium term outcomes in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in a European, multi-centre setting. The aim is to build upon available literature supporting decision making for vulnerable patient cohorts during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods and analysis Over a 3-month period we aim to recruit a minimum of 500 patients across ten hospital sites, collecting baseline data including: patient demographics; presence of co-morbidities; relevant blood tests on admission; prescription of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)/ angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)/ non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)/ immunosuppressants; smoking status; Clinical Frailty Score (CFS); length of hospital stay; mortality and readmission. All patients receiving inpatient hospital care > 18 years who receive a diagnosis of COVID-19 are eligible for inclusion. Our primary analysis will be short-term mortality and long-term mortality by CFS, adjusted for age (18-64, 65-80 and > 80) and gender. We will carry out a secondary analysis of the primary outcome by including additional clinical mediators which are determined statistically important using a likelihood ratio test. All analyses will be presented as crude and adjusted hazard ratio and odds ratio with associated 95% CIs and p values.

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