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A systematic review of factors that contribute to nocebo effects

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A systematic review of factors that contribute to nocebo effects. / Webster, Rebecca K.; Weinman, John; James Rubin, G.

In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, Vol. 35, No. 12, 01.12.2016, p. 1334-1355.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Harvard

Webster, RK, Weinman, J & James Rubin, G 2016, 'A systematic review of factors that contribute to nocebo effects', Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1334-1355. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000416

APA

Webster, R. K., Weinman, J., & James Rubin, G. (2016). A systematic review of factors that contribute to nocebo effects. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 35(12), 1334-1355. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000416

Vancouver

Webster RK, Weinman J, James Rubin G. A systematic review of factors that contribute to nocebo effects. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. 2016 Dec 1;35(12):1334-1355. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000416

Author

Webster, Rebecca K. ; Weinman, John ; James Rubin, G. / A systematic review of factors that contribute to nocebo effects. In: Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. 2016 ; Vol. 35, No. 12. pp. 1334-1355.

Bibtex Download

@article{f43dc988c888491692f2a585f2ad0b7f,
title = "A systematic review of factors that contribute to nocebo effects",
abstract = "Objectives: Medication side effects are common, often leading to reduced quality of life, nonadherence, and financial costs for health services. Many side effects are the result of a psychologically mediated {"}nocebo effect.{"} This review identifies the risk factors involved in the development of nocebo effects. Method: Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Journals@Ovid full text, and Global Health were searched using the terms {"}nocebo{"} and {"}placebo effect.{"} To be included, studies must have exposed people to an inert substance and have assessed 1 or more baseline or experimental factor(s) on its ability to predict symptom development in response to the inert exposure. Results: Eighty-nine studies were included; 70 used an experimental design and 19 used a prospective design, identifying 14 different categories of risk factor. The strongest predictors of nocebo effects were a higher perceived dose of exposure, explicit suggestions that the exposure triggers arousal or symptoms, observing people experiencing symptoms from the exposure, and higher expectations of symptoms. Conclusions: To reduce nocebo induced symptoms associated with medication or other interventions clinicians could reduce expectations of symptoms, limit suggestions of symptoms, correct unrealistic dose perceptions, and reduce exposure to people experiencing side effects. There is some evidence that we should do this especially for persons with at-risk personality types, though exactly which personality types these are requires further research. These suggestions have a downside in terms of consent and paternalism, but there is scope to develop innovative ways to reduce nocebo effects without withholding information.",
keywords = "Inert exposure, Nocebo effect, Predictors, Review, Symptoms",
author = "Webster, {Rebecca K.} and John Weinman and {James Rubin}, G.",
year = "2016",
month = dec,
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/hea0000416",
language = "English",
volume = "35",
pages = "1334--1355",
journal = "Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association",
issn = "0278-6133",
number = "12",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - A systematic review of factors that contribute to nocebo effects

AU - Webster, Rebecca K.

AU - Weinman, John

AU - James Rubin, G.

PY - 2016/12/1

Y1 - 2016/12/1

N2 - Objectives: Medication side effects are common, often leading to reduced quality of life, nonadherence, and financial costs for health services. Many side effects are the result of a psychologically mediated "nocebo effect." This review identifies the risk factors involved in the development of nocebo effects. Method: Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Journals@Ovid full text, and Global Health were searched using the terms "nocebo" and "placebo effect." To be included, studies must have exposed people to an inert substance and have assessed 1 or more baseline or experimental factor(s) on its ability to predict symptom development in response to the inert exposure. Results: Eighty-nine studies were included; 70 used an experimental design and 19 used a prospective design, identifying 14 different categories of risk factor. The strongest predictors of nocebo effects were a higher perceived dose of exposure, explicit suggestions that the exposure triggers arousal or symptoms, observing people experiencing symptoms from the exposure, and higher expectations of symptoms. Conclusions: To reduce nocebo induced symptoms associated with medication or other interventions clinicians could reduce expectations of symptoms, limit suggestions of symptoms, correct unrealistic dose perceptions, and reduce exposure to people experiencing side effects. There is some evidence that we should do this especially for persons with at-risk personality types, though exactly which personality types these are requires further research. These suggestions have a downside in terms of consent and paternalism, but there is scope to develop innovative ways to reduce nocebo effects without withholding information.

AB - Objectives: Medication side effects are common, often leading to reduced quality of life, nonadherence, and financial costs for health services. Many side effects are the result of a psychologically mediated "nocebo effect." This review identifies the risk factors involved in the development of nocebo effects. Method: Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Journals@Ovid full text, and Global Health were searched using the terms "nocebo" and "placebo effect." To be included, studies must have exposed people to an inert substance and have assessed 1 or more baseline or experimental factor(s) on its ability to predict symptom development in response to the inert exposure. Results: Eighty-nine studies were included; 70 used an experimental design and 19 used a prospective design, identifying 14 different categories of risk factor. The strongest predictors of nocebo effects were a higher perceived dose of exposure, explicit suggestions that the exposure triggers arousal or symptoms, observing people experiencing symptoms from the exposure, and higher expectations of symptoms. Conclusions: To reduce nocebo induced symptoms associated with medication or other interventions clinicians could reduce expectations of symptoms, limit suggestions of symptoms, correct unrealistic dose perceptions, and reduce exposure to people experiencing side effects. There is some evidence that we should do this especially for persons with at-risk personality types, though exactly which personality types these are requires further research. These suggestions have a downside in terms of consent and paternalism, but there is scope to develop innovative ways to reduce nocebo effects without withholding information.

KW - Inert exposure

KW - Nocebo effect

KW - Predictors

KW - Review

KW - Symptoms

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84996866061&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/hea0000416

DO - 10.1037/hea0000416

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:84996866061

VL - 35

SP - 1334

EP - 1355

JO - Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

JF - Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association

SN - 0278-6133

IS - 12

ER -

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