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A Systematic Review of Tools Used to Assess Body Image, Masculinity and Self-Esteem in Men with Prostate Cancer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Original languageEnglish
Early online date16 Aug 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Aug 2020


  • BI_Masc_SE_SR_PON

    BI_Masc_SE_SR_PON.pdf, 968 KB, application/pdf


    Final published version

    CC BY

King's Authors


Masculinity, body image, and self-esteem are important interlinked factors affecting prostate cancer (PCa) patients’ quality of life. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate all tools measuring these domains in men with PCa.

This review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines with a priori protocol registered. Pubmed, Embase, Medline and Psychinfo were searched from inception to May 2020. Studies using a predefined tool which measured any body image, self-esteem or masculinity construct in men with PCa were included, as well as validation studies of these. Reliability, validity and responsiveness of tools identified were objectively evaluated against the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties.

From 1416 records screened, a final 46 studies consisting of 17 different tools were included in the systematic review. Seven tools were identified assessing body image, nine masculinity and one self-esteem, varying widely in their number of items, possible responses, and domains assessed. Most tools had evaluated internal consistency through Cronbach’s alpha analysis; however, structural and discriminative validity, and responsiveness were lacking for many. Additionally, only one tool identified was specifically developed and evaluated in patients with PCa : The Masculinity in Chronic Disease Inventory.

Numerous tools have been used for the measurement of body image, masculinity and self-esteem in men with PCa. However, few were developed specifically for these patients. More research is therefore needed to ascertain specific factors affecting these outcomes in PCa patients, so valid, reliable and clinically relevant tools can be developed.

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