Accelerated 3D free-breathing high-resolution myocardial T mapping at 3 Tesla

Haikun Qi*, Zhenfeng Lv, Junpu Hu, Jian Xu, René Botnar, Claudia Prieto, Peng Hu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To develop a fast free-breathing whole-heart high-resolution myocardial T mapping technique with robust spin-lock preparation that can be performed at 3 Tesla. Methods: An adiabatically excited continuous-wave spin-lock module, insensitive to field inhomogeneities, was implemented with an electrocardiogram-triggered low-flip angle spoiled gradient echo sequence with variable-density 3D Cartesian undersampling at a 3 Tesla whole-body scanner. A saturation pulse was performed at the beginning of each cardiac cycle to null the magnetization before T preparation. Multiple T-weighted images were acquired with T preparations with different spin-lock times in an interleaved fashion. Respiratory self-gating approach was adopted along with localized autofocus to enable 3D translational motion correction of the data acquired in each heartbeat. After motion correction, multi-contrast locally low-rank reconstruction was performed to reduce undersampling artifacts. The accuracy and feasibility of the 3D T mapping technique was investigated in phantoms and in vivo in 10 healthy subjects compared with the 2D T mapping. Results: The 3D T mapping technique provided similar phantom T measurements in the range of 25–120 ms to the 2D T mapping reference over a wide range of simulated heart rates. With the robust adiabatically excited continuous-wave spin-lock preparation, good quality 2D and 3D in vivo T-weighted images and T maps were obtained. Myocardial T values with the 3D T mapping were slightly longer than 2D breath-hold measurements (septal T: 52.7 ± 1.4 ms vs. 50.2 ± 1.8 ms, P < 0.01). Conclusion: A fast 3D free-breathing whole-heart T mapping technique was proposed for T quantification at 3 T with isotropic spatial resolution (2 mm3) and short scan time of ∼4.5 min.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2520-2531
Number of pages12
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number6
Early online date31 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022


  • cardiovascular magnetic resonance
  • free-breathing
  • spin-lock
  • T mapping


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