Activation of genotoxins to DNA-damaging species in exfoliated breast milk cells

F L Martin, K J Cole, J A Williams, B C Millar, D Harvey, G Weaver, P L Grover, D H Phillips

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Exfoliated cells, isolated from breast milk samples donated by UK-resident women (n=15), were incubated, either immediately or after culture for 7 days, with one of a series of genotoxins, either in the presence or absence of the DNA-repair inhibitors, hydroxyurea (HU), and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). The numbers of DNA single-strand breaks induced were then assessed as comet tail length (CTL) (microm) using the alkaline single cell-gel electrophoresis ('Comet') assay; cell viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion. The heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (0.4 mM), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) (1.67 mM), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) (1.77 mM)), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.36 mM)), a nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (1-nitropyrene (1-NP) (1.84 mM)) and aromatic amines (o-toluidine (0.85 mM), p-chloroaniline (0. 71 mM)) each induced statistically significant (P
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-24
Number of pages10
JournalMutation Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2000


  • Biotransformation
  • Breast
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Comet Assay
  • DNA
  • DNA Damage
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mutagens

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