Addressing the gap for racially diverse research involvement: The King's model for minority ethnic research participant recruitment

K. Ray Chaudhuri, A. Podlewska, Y. Hui Lau, C. Gonde, A. Mcintosh, M.A. Qamar, S. O'donoghue, K. Larcombe, M. Adeeko, A. Gupta, S. Bajwah, S. Lafond, O. Awogbemila, R. Van coller, A.m. Murtagh, J.E. Ocloo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Ethnic minorities (EM) are still underrepresented in research recruitment. Despite wide literature outlining the barriers, enablers and recommendations for driving inclusion and diversity in research, there is still little evidence for successful diversity in research participation, which has a direct impact on the quality of care provided to ethnically diverse individuals. A new, comprehensive approach to recruitment strategies is therefore necessary.

Study design
service improvement initiative.

In the light of the Covid-19 pandemic and the key public health need to address the disparity in care provided to non-white populations, we used a novel, comprehensive approach (The King's Model) comprising of local and community actions to promote inclusive research recruitment. We then compared rates of diverse recruitment in studies where the novel approach, was applied to studies which had been closed to recruitment at the time of analysis and where ethnicity data was available.

Our results demonstrate that following the introduction of the King's Model for diverse recruitment, commercial interventional study diverse recruitment increased from 6.4% to 16.1%, and for non-commercial studies, from 30.2% to 41.0% and 59.2% in the selected studies.

King's Model is potentially a useful tool in enhancing non-Caucasian recruitment to clinical research. Enriched by additional recommendations based on our experiences during the Covid-19 research recruitment drive, we propose the King's Model is used to support ethnically diverse research recruitment. Further evidence is needed to replicate our findings, although this preliminary evidence provides granular details necessary to address the key unmet need of validating clinical research outcomes in non-white populations.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100426
JournalPublic Health in Practice
Early online date10 Sept 2023
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


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