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ADHD Remote Technology study of cardiometabolic risk factors and medication adherence (ART‑CARMA): a multi‑centre prospective cohort study protocol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Hayley Denyer, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Amos Folarin, Carolina Ramos, Petra Nemeth, Andrea Bilbow, Euan Woodward, Susannah Whitwell, Ulrich Müller-Sedgwick, Henrik Larsson, Richard Dobson, Jonna Kuntsi

Original languageEnglish
Article number813
Number of pages13
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Early online date20 Dec 2022
Accepted/In press25 Nov 2022
E-pub ahead of print20 Dec 2022
Published20 Dec 2022

King's Authors


Background: Emerging evidence points at substantial comorbidity between adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cardiometabolic diseases, but our understanding of the comorbidity and how to manage cardiometabolic disease in adults with ADHD is limited. The ADHD Remote Technology study of cardiometabolic risk factors and medication adherence (ART-CARMA) project uses remote measurement technology to obtain real-world data from daily life to assess the extent to which ADHD medication treatment and physical activity, individually and jointly, may influence cardiometabolic risks in adults with ADHD. Our second main aim is to obtain valuable real-world data on adherence to pharmacological treatment and its predictors and correlates during daily life from adults with ADHD.
Methods: ART-CARMA is a multi-site prospective cohort study within the EU-funded collaboration ‘TIMESPAN’ (Management of chronic cardiometabolic disease and treatment discontinuity in adult ADHD patients) that will recruit 300 adults from adult ADHD waiting lists. The participants will be monitored remotely over a period of 12 months that starts from pre-treatment initiation. Passive monitoring, which involves the participants wearing a wrist-worn device (EmbracePlus) and downloading the RADAR-base Passive App and the Empatica Care App on their smartphone, provides ongoing data collection on a wide range of variables, such as physical activity, sleep, pulse rate (PR) and pulse rate variability (PRV), systolic peaks, electrodermal activity (EDA), oxygen saturation (SpO2), peripheral temperature, smartphone usage including social connectivity, and the environment (e.g. ambient noise, light levels, relative location). By combining data across these variables measured, processes such as physical activity, sleep, autonomic arousal, and indicators of cardiovascular health can be captured. Active remote monitoring involves the participant completing tasks using a smartphone app (such as completing clinical questionnaires or speech tasks), measuring their blood pressure and weight, or using a PC/laptop (cognitive tasks). The ART system is built on the RADAR-base mobile-health platform.
Discussion: The long-term goal is to use these data to improve the management of cardiometabolic disease in
adults with ADHD, and to improve ADHD medication treatment adherence and the personalisation of treatment.

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