Primary Sjögren's syndrome is a complex systemic autoimmune disorder that primarily affects exocrine glands such as the lacrimal glands. Dry eye disease is one of the most prevalent complications of Sjögren's syndrome, affecting most patients. It significantly impairs quality of life and management is often difficult and unsatisfactory, in part due to weak correlation between symptoms and signs and poor recognition of the three main subtypes aqueous-deficient, evaporative and neuropathic dry eye. This review provides an overview of key aspects of dry eye disease, such as its multifactorial aetiology and recent insights into pathophysiology. The uses and pitfalls of commonly-used diagnostic tests for dry eye are reviewed, as well as the increasing number of new imaging technologies and biomarkers to refine diagnosis. There are many current and emerging treatment options for dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome, but high-level evidence of efficacy is mostly lacking, as are evidence-based treatment algorithms. All these aspects make the management of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome challenging.
|Journal||Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
- Dry eye
- Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
- Sjögren's syndrome