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Alzheimer’s disease: are blood and brain markers related? A systematic review: Blood and Brain Markers of Alzheimer’s Disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Early online date11 May 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 May 2016


King's Authors


Objective: Peripheral protein biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may help
identify novel treatment avenues by allowing early diagnosis, recruitment to
clinical trials, and treatment initiation. The purpose of this review was to deter-
mine which proteins have been found to be differentially expressed in the AD
brain and whether these proteins are also found within the blood of AD
patients. Methods: A two-stage approach was conducted. The first stage
involved conducting a systematic search to identify discovery-based brain pro-
teomic studies of AD. The second stage involved comparing whether proteins
found to be differentially expressed in AD brain were also differentially
expressed in the blood. Results: Across 11 discovery based brain proteomic
studies 371 proteins were at different levels in the AD brain. Nine proteins were
frequently found, defined as appearing in at least three separate studies. Of
these proteins heat-shock cognate 71 kDa, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydro-
lase isozyme L1, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase alone were
found to share a consistent direction of change, being consistently upregulated
in studies they appeared in. Eighteen proteins seen as being differentially
expressed within the AD brain were present in blood proteomic studies of AD.
Only complement C4a was seen multiple times within both the blood and brain
proteomic studies. Interpretation: We report a number of proteins appearing
in both the blood and brain of AD patients. Of these proteins, C4a may be a
good candidate for further follow-up in large-scale replication efforts.

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