An in-vitro study investigating the effect of air-abrasion bioactive glasses on dental adhesion, cytotoxicity and odontogenic gene expression

Gianrico Spagnuolo, Paula Maciel Pires, Anna Calarco, Gianfranco Peluso, Avijit Banerjee, Sandro Rengo, Augusto R. Elias Boneta, Salvatore Sauro*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To assess the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and interfacial characteristics of universal adhesives applied on dentine air-abraded using different powders. The analysis includes the cytotoxicity of the powders and their effect on odontogenic gene expression. Methods: Sound human dentine specimens were air-abraded using bioglass 45S5 (BAG), polycarboxylated zinc-doped bioglass (SEL), alumina (AL) and submitted to SEM analysis. Resin composite was bonded to air-abraded or smear layer-covered dentine (SML) using an experimental (EXP) or a commercial adhesive (ABU) in etch&rinse (ER) or self-etch (SE) modes. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva (AS) and subjected to MTBS testing after 24 h and 10 months. Interfacial nanoleakage assessment was accomplished using confocal microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the powders was assessed, also the total RNA was extracted and the expression of odontogenic genes was evaluated through RT-PCR. Results: After prolonged AS storage, specimens in the control (SML) and AL groups showed a significant drop in MTBS (p > 0.05), with degradation evident within the bonding interface. Specimens in BAG or SEL air-abraded dentine groups showed no significant difference, with resin-dentine interfaces devoid of important degradation. The metabolic activity of pulp stem cells was not affected by the tested powders. SEL and BAG had no effect on the expression of odontoblast differentiation markers. However, AL particles interfered with the expression of the odontogenic markers. Significance: The use of bioactive glass air-abrasion may prevent severe degradation at the resin-dentine interface. Unlike alumina, bioactive glasses do not interfere with the normal metabolic activity of pulp stem cells and their differentiation to odontoblasts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1734-1750
Number of pages17
JournalDental Materials
Issue number11
Early online date21 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Air-abrasion
  • Biocompatibility
  • Bonding
  • Dentine
  • Odontogenic gene expression
  • Resin-dentine interface


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