An integrated pre-pregnancy care programme framework theoretically modelled from the perspectives of women with Type 2 diabetes and healthcare professionals

Rita Forde*, Jacqueline Collin, Anna Brackenridge, Mark Chamley, Katharine Hunt, Angus Forbes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies in women with diabetes are associated with significant additional risks for the fetus, infant and mother such as, higher risk of stillbirths or congenital anomalies. Pre-pregnancy care can attenuate these risks. However, while women with Type 2 diabetes account for half of pregnancies in women with pre-existing diabetes, they are much less likely to receive pre-pregnancy care than women with Type 1 diabetes. This discrepancy may be related to the fact that most pre-pregnancy care is located in specialist diabetes centres where women with Type 1 diabetes are managed; whereas women with Type 2 diabetes are managed in primary care and reproductive care is not a routine element of diabetes care. Therefore, to improve pre-pregnancy care among women with Type 2 diabetes strategies need to be tailored to the specific needs of this group and the context of their diabetes care.

OBJECTIVES: This paper seeks to inform the development of an integrated pre-pregnancy care programme by presenting strategies identified by women with Type 2 diabetes and healthcare professionals that address some of the barriers they experience in relation to pre-pregnancy care.

METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age with Type 2 diabetes (n=30) and diabetes healthcare professionals (n=22) from both primary and secondary care. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Framework Analysis. The identified themes were then mapped to create a theoretical intervention framework using Normalisation Process Theory and the Capabilities, Opportunity, and Motivation to perform a Behaviour model.

RESULTS: Six themes were identified expressing the need for a multimodal approach for improving the uptake of pre-pregnancy care in women with Type 2 diabetes. These themes were then mapped onto the constructs of Normalisation Process Theory as follows: coherence (enhancing understanding of reproductive needs among women and healthcare professionals); cognitive participation (constructing a positive narrative for pregnancy and Type 2 diabetes); collective action (increasing the visibly of the reproductive needs of women, integrating healthcare systems and utilising supportive technologies); and reflexive monitoring (using multi-modal approaches to support systemised care). The data were also modelled to identify target behaviours for intervention detailing what needs to be done by whom, when and where.

CONCLUSION: Women with Type 2 diabetes account for half of pregnancies in those with pre-existing diabetes; however, they are less likely to receive pre-pregnancy care than women with Type 1 diabetes. Pre-pregnancy care can reduce the maternal and fetal risks associated with Type 2 diabetes. This study presents strategies to improve the current low uptake of pre-pregnancy care for women with Type 2 diabetes. These strategies have been tailored to the specific needs of women and healthcare professionals and support integration within the woman's routine diabetes management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103130
JournalMIDWIFERY
Volume103
Early online date24 Aug 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Integrated care pathway
  • Intervention development
  • Pre-pregnancy care
  • Qualitative research
  • Type 2 diabetes

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