An overview of pain in Parkinson's disease

Panagiotis Zis*, Elisaveta Sokolov, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In Parkinson's disease pain, one of its sensory symptoms, is a frequent yet poorly understood non-motor symptom, sometimes severe enough to overshadow the motor symptoms. In this chapter we consider pain that can specifically be attributed to this disease, either directly (primary pain) or indirectly (secondary pain). We also address the phenomenology, the epidemiology, the development of new assessment tools such as the Kings Parkinson's Pain Scale, and new advances in treatment through recent reports of double-blind clinical trials. Regarding therapy, there are as yet no validated and evidence-based treatment algorithms for pain. However, correct diagnosis of the type of pain and of its exact aetiology is crucial for determining the management strategy. These strategies include levodopa and dopamine agonists, deep brain stimulation and opiods. The clinical process may be helped by specific tools such as the Kings Parkinson's Pain Scale scale. In addition, the role of multidisciplinary (non-pharmaceutical) therapy in the management of pain in Parkinson's is paramount.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAn Introduction to Pain and Nervous System Disorders
EditorsAnna Battaglia
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9781118455968
ISBN (Print)9781118455913
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2016


  • Non-motor symptoms
  • Pain
  • Parkinson's disease


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