King's College London

Research portal

An ultrastructural study of cellular response to variation in porosity in phase-pure hydroxyapatite.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

B Annaz, K A Hing, M Kayser, T Buckland, L Di Silvio

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97 - 109
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Microscopy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2004

King's Authors


Hydroxyapatite has been shown to be biocompatible and bioactive. Incorporation of porosity has been shown to enhance osteointegration; however, difficulty in controlling the extent and type of porosity has limited investigation into determining the role of both macro- and microporosity. The current investigation reports on the synthesis of four types of phase-pure hydroxyapatite with varying levels of porosity (HA1-HA4), and with defined levels of macro- and microporosities. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate qualitatively the effect of these two parameters on cell-material interactions following a 30-day incubation period. Biological mineralization was observed within vesicles and the needle-like minerals were confirmed as hydroxyapatite using X-ray microanalysis. This demonstrated the suitability of primary human osteoblast-like cells as a tool to assess the extent of mineralization. Furthermore, internalization of hydroxyapatite particles was observed. Our findings show that the variation in macro- and microporosity does not affect the extent of cell-material interaction, with collagen synthesis evident in all samples.

View graph of relations

© 2018 King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS | England | United Kingdom | Tel +44 (0)20 7836 5454