Analyzing Novel Grant-Based and Grant-Free Access Schemes for Small Data Transmission

Hui Zhou, Yansha Deng, Luca Feltrin, Andreas Hoglund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
38 Downloads (Pure)


Fifth Generation (5G) New Radio (NR) does not support data transmission during random access (RA) procedures, which results in unnecessary control signalling overhead and power consumption, especially for small data transmission (SDT). Motivated by this, 3GPP has proposed 4/2-step SDT RA schemes based on the existing grant-based (4-step) and grant-free (2-step) RA schemes, with the aim to enable data transmission during RA procedures in Radio Resource Control (RRC) Inactive state. To compare the 4/2-step SDT RA schemes with the benchmark 4/2-step RA schemes, we provide a spatiooral analytical framework to evaluate the RA schemes, which jointly models the preamble detection, Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) decoding, and data transmission procedures. Based on this analytical model, we derive the analytical expressions for the overall packet transmission success probability and average throughput in each RACH attempt. We also derive the average energy consumption in each RACH attempt. Our results show that 2-step SDT RA scheme provides the highest overall packet transmission success probability, and the lowest average energy consumption, but the performance gain decreases with the increase of device intensity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2805-2819
Number of pages15
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • Data communication
  • Energy consumption
  • Analytical models
  • Mathematical models
  • Interference
  • Uplink
  • Throughput
  • Grant-based
  • grant-free
  • 4-step
  • 2-step
  • small data
  • energy consumption


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