Research on employee learning and development has traditionally focused on off-the-job activities. Drawing on Tesluk and Jacobs's (1998) model of work experience and grounded in social cognitive theory, we conceptualized perceived challenging job experiences as a form of on-the-job learning and development and examined its antecedents and outcomes. Data were obtained from 248 subordinate-supervisor dyads in multiple service sector organizations in northeastern China. The results of structural equation modeling revealed transformational leadership and learning orientation to be related to perceived challenging job experiences. Furthermore, perceived challenging job experiences related to task performance and promotability assessment but indirectly through task-specific self-efficacy.