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Anxiety and depression symptoms after COVID-19 infection: results from the COVID Symptom Study app

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kerstin Klaser, Ellen J Thompson, Long H Nguyen, Carole H Sudre, Michela Antonelli, Benjamin Murray, Liane S Canas, Erika Molteni, Mark S Graham, Eric Kerfoot, Liyuan Chen, Jie Deng, Anna May, Christina Hu, Andy Guest, Somesh Selvachandran, David A Drew, Marc Modat, Andrew T Chan, Jonathan Wolf & 5 more Tim D Spector, Alexander Hammers, Emma L Duncan, Sebastien Ourselin, Claire J Steves

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1254-1258
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Issue number12
Early online date28 Sep 2021
Accepted/In press7 Sep 2021
E-pub ahead of print28 Sep 2021
Published16 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright: © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.

King's Authors


BACKGROUND: Mental health issues have been reported after SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, comparison to prevalence in uninfected individuals and contribution from common risk factors (eg, obesity and comorbidities) have not been examined. We identified how COVID-19 relates to mental health in the large community-based COVID Symptom Study. METHODS: We assessed anxiety and depression symptoms using two validated questionnaires in 413148 individuals between February and April 2021; 26998 had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We adjusted for physical and mental prepandemic comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), age and sex. FINDINGS: Overall, 26.4% of participants met screening criteria for general anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression were slightly more prevalent in previously SARS-CoV-2-positive (30.4%) vs SARS-CoV-2-negative (26.1%) individuals. This association was small compared with the effect of an unhealthy BMI and the presence of other comorbidities, and not evident in younger participants (≤40 years). Findings were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. Association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and anxiety and depression was stronger in individuals with recent (<30 days) versus more distant (>120 days) infection, suggesting a short-term effect. INTERPRETATION: A small association was identified between SARS-CoV-2 infection and anxiety and depression symptoms. The proportion meeting criteria for self-reported anxiety and depression disorders is only slightly higher than prepandemic.

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