Argon-based atmospheric pressure plasma enhances early bone response to rough titanium surfaces

Paulo G Coelho, Gabriela Giro, Hellen S Teixeira, Charles Marin, Lukas Witek, Van P Thompson, Nick Tovar, Nelson R F A Silva

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This study investigated the effect of an Argon-based atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) surface treatment operated chairside at atmospheric pressure conditions applied immediately prior to dental implant placement in a canine model. Surfaces investigated comprised: rough titanium surface (Ti) and rough titanium surface + Argon-based APP (Ti-Plasma). Surface energy was characterized by the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method and chemistry by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Six adult beagles dogs received two plateau-root form implants (n = 1 each surface) in each radii, providing implants that remained 1 and 3 weeks in vivo. Histometric parameters assessed were bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskall-Wallis (95% level of significance) and Dunn's post-hoc test. The XPS analysis showed peaks of Ti, C, and O for the Ti and Ti- Plasma surfaces. Both surfaces presented carbon primarily as hydrocarbon (C-C, C-H) with lower levels of oxidized carbon forms. The Ti-Plasma presented large increase in the Ti (+11%) and O (+16%) elements for the Ti- Plasma group along with a decrease of 23% in surface-adsorbed C content. At 1 week no difference was found in histometric parameters between groups. At 3 weeks significantly higher BIC (>300%) and mean BAFO (>30%) were observed for Ti-Plasma treated surfaces. From a morphologic standpoint, improved interaction between connective tissue was observed at 1 week, likely leading to more uniform and higher bone formation at 3 weeks for the Ti-Plasma treated implants was observed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1901-6
Number of pages6
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012


  • Bone Development
  • Animals
  • Titanium
  • Argon
  • Dogs
  • Atmospheric Pressure
  • Plasma Gases
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning

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