BACKGROUND: Deep learning-based (DL) methods are the best-performing methods for white matter tract segmentation in anatomically healthy subjects. However, tract annotations are variable or absent in clinical data and manual annotations are especially difficult in patients with tumors where normal anatomy may be distorted. Direct cortical and subcortical stimulation is the gold standard ground truth to determine the cortical and sub-cortical lo- cation of motor-eloquent areas intra-operatively. Nonetheless, this technique is invasive, prolongs the surgical procedure, and may cause patient fatigue. Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (nTMS) has a well-established correlation to direct cortical stimulation for motor mapping and the added advantage of being able to be acquired pre-operatively.

NEW METHOD: In this work, we evaluate the feasibility of using nTMS motor responses as a method to assess corticospinal tract (CST) binary masks and estimated uncertainty generated by a DL-based tract segmentation in patients with diffuse gliomas.

RESULTS: Our results show CST binary masks have a high overlap coefficient (OC) with nTMS response masks. A strong negative correlation is found between estimated uncertainty and nTMS response mask distance to the CST binary mask.

COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We compare our approach (UncSeg) with the state-of-the-art TractSeg in terms of OC between the CST binary masks and nTMS response masks.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrate that estimated uncertainty from UncSeg is a good measure of the agreement between the CST binary masks and nTMS response masks distance to the CST binary mask boundary.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109933
Pages (from-to)109933
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023


  • Humans
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods
  • Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
  • Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods
  • Brain Mapping/methods
  • Glioma/surgery
  • Neuronavigation/methods


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