King's College London

Research portal

Assessment of Confabulation in Patients with Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders: The Nijmegen–Venray Confabulation List (NVCL-20)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yvonne C.M. Renson, Jouke M. Oosterman, Jessica E. van Damme, Sonja I.A. Griekspoor, Arie J. Wester, Michael David Kopelman, Roy P. C. Kessels

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)804-823
JournalThe Clinical Neuropsychologist
Early online date11 Sep 2015
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Sep 2015


King's Authors


Objective: Even though the first awareness of confabulations is often based on observations, only questionnaires and structured interviews quantifying provoked confabulations are available. So far, no tools have been developed to measure spontaneous confabulation. This study describes and validates an observation scale for quantifying confabulation behavior, including
spontaneous confabulations, in clinical practice.

Method: An observation scale consisting of 20 items was developed, the Nijmegen–Venray Confabulation List-20 (NVCL-20). This scale covers
spontaneous confabulation, provoked confabulation, and memory and orientation. Professional caregivers completed the NVCL-20 for 28 Korsakoff (KS) patients and 24 cognitively impaired chronic alcoholics (ALC). Their ratings were related to the Dalla Barba Confabulation Battery (DBCB), Provoked Confabulation Test (PCT), and standard neuropsychological tests.

Results: The categories of the NVCL-20 have “good” to “excellent” internal consistency and inter-rater agreement. The KS patients confabulated more (both spontaneously and provoked), and more memory and orientation problems were observed. Correlations with neuropsychological test scores showed that confabulations were associated with memory deficits, but not with
intrusions or tests of executive dysfunction. Conclusions: The NVCL-20 is the first instrument that includes items addressing spontaneous confabulation. Administration is reliable, valid and feasible in clinical practice, making it a useful addition to existing confabulating measures.

Download statistics

No data available

View graph of relations

© 2018 King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS | England | United Kingdom | Tel +44 (0)20 7836 5454