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Association between blood pressure variability, cardiovascular disease and mortality in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Martina Chiriacò, Konstantinos Pateras, Agostino Virdis, Marietta Charakida, Despoina Kyriakopoulou, Monica Nannipieri, Michele Emdin, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Stefano Taddei, Stefano Masi, Georgios Georgiopoulos

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2587-2598
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

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  • King's College London


Aim: To investigate the associations of blood pressure variability (BPV), expressed as long-term (visit-to-visit) and short-term (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring [ABPM] and home blood pressure monitoring [HBPM]) and all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), extended MACEs, microvascular complications (MiCs) and hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, and grey literature databases were searched for studies including patients with type 2 diabetes, at least one variable of BPV (visit-to-visit, HBPM, ABPM) and evaluation of the incidence of at least one of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, MACEs, extended MACEs and/or MiCs and/or HMOD. The extracted information was analyzed using random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results: Data from a total of 377 305 patients were analyzed. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04–1.21), MACEs (HR 1.01, 95% CI 1.04–1.17), extended MACEs (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.11) and MiCs (HR 1. 12, 95% CI 1.01–1.24), while diastolic blood pressure was not. Associations were mainly driven from studies on long-term SBP variability. Qualitative analysis showed that BPV was associated with the presence of HMOD expressed as carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity and left ventricular hypertrophy. Results were independent of mean blood pressure, glycaemic control and serum creatinine levels. Conclusions: Our results suggest that BPV might provide additional information rather than mean blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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