Association of serum inorganic phosphate with sex steroid hormones and vitamin D in a nationally representative sample of men

W. Wulaningsih, M. Van Hemelrijck, K. Michaelsson, N. Kanarek, W. G. Nelson, J. H. Ix, E. A. Platz, S. Rohrmann

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    13 Citations (Scopus)


    Defects in bone regulatory pathways have been linked to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. In men, a link between bone metabolism and gonadal hormones has been suggested. However, to date, there is lack of evidence on the association between serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) and sex steroid hormones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between Pi, sex steroid hormones and a known Pi metabolic regulator, vitamin D, in men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). From NHANES III, we selected 1412 men aged 20+ who participated in the morning session of Phase I (1988-1991) with serum measurements of Pi, sex hormones, and vitamin D. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate crude and geometric mean Pi by total and estimated free testosterone and estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (AAG), and vitamin D. Similar analyses were performed while stratifying by race/ethnicity and vitamin D levels. We found a lack of statistically significant difference in geometric means of Pi across quintiles of concentrations of sex hormones, indicating a tight regulation of Pi. However, Pi levels were inversely associated with calculated free testosterone in non-Hispanic black men, with geometric mean levels of Pi of 1.16 and 1.02 ng/mL for those in the lowest and highest quintiles of free testosterone, respectively (p-trend < 0.05). A similar but weaker pattern was seen between total testosterone and Pi. An inverse association was also seen between AAG and Pi in men with vitamin D concentration below the median (<24.2 ng/mL). No associations were observed among men with vitamin D levels at or above the median. Our findings suggest a weak link among sex hormones, vitamin D, and Pi in men. The observed effects of race/ethnicity and vitamin D indicate a complex association involving various regulators of Pi homeostasis.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)967-976
    Number of pages10
    Issue number6
    Early online date1 Oct 2014
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2014


    • cross-sectional studies
    • gonadal steroid hormones
    • serum inorganic phosphate


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