King's College London

Research portal

ATP shows more potential as a urinary biomarker than acetylcholine and PGE2, but its concentration in urine is not a simple function of dilution

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Linda McLatchie, Arun Sahai, Anna Caldwell, Prokar Dasgupta, Chris Fry

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)753-762
Number of pages10
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Issue number3
Accepted/In press2021
PublishedMar 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: The authors would like to thank Allergan for funding this project. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics published by Wiley Periodicals LLC Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

King's Authors


Aims: To determine whether the amount of ATP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and acetylcholine (ACh) in voided urine are influenced enough by that released within the lower urinary tract (LUT) for them to be useful biomarkers of bladder function. Methods: Participants without LUT symptoms collected total urine voids at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min (20 males/23 females) and 240 min (18 males/26 females) following the previous void. Aliquots of urine were immediately frozen at −20°C and later used to measure ATP (luciferin-luciferase), PGE2 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), ACh (mass spectrometry), creatinine (colorimetric), and lactose dehydrogenase (colorimetric). Results: The amount of ATP in voided urine correlated strongly with the rate of urine production, suggesting that the majority, if not all, the ATP in voided urine has an LUT, and likely bladder, origin. In contrast, there appeared to be no significant net LUTs release of creatinine or ACh into the urine. PGE2 was intermediate with an LUT component that increased with urine production rate and contributed about 25% of the total at 1 ml/min in women but a smaller fraction in men. Conclusion: Whereas the majority of the ATP measured within the voided urine originates in the LUT, ACh reflects that extracted from the plasma in the kidneys and PGE2 is a mixture of both sources. ATP has the most potential as a biomarker of benign bladder disorders. Expressing urinary ATP concentration relative to creatinine concentration is questioned in light of these results.

View graph of relations

© 2020 King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS | England | United Kingdom | Tel +44 (0)20 7836 5454