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Conjugated polymers are organic semiconductors that can be used for fluorescence microscopy of living specimens. Here, we report the encapsulation of the bright-red-emitting conjugated polymer, poly[{9,9-dihexyl-2,7-bis(1-cyanovinylene)fluorenylene}-alt-co-{2,5-bis(N,N′-diphenylamino)-1,4-phenylene}] (CN-FO-DPD), and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) within poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) micelles. The resulting particles exhibited an emission peak at 657 nm, a fluorescence quantum yield of 21%, an average diameter of 65 nm, and a ζ potential of -30 mV. They are taken up by cells, and we describe their use in fluorescence microscopy of living Hela cells and zebrafish embryos and their associated cytotoxicity in HEK, HeLa, and HCE cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8193–8202
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Polymer Materials
Issue number11
Early online date12 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2022


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