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Bioformation of boldenone and related precursors/metabolites in equine feces and urine, with relevance to doping control

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Bioformation of boldenone and related precursors/metabolites in equine feces and urine, with relevance to doping control. / Viljanto, Marjaana; Kicman, Andrew T.; Walker, Christopher J.; Wolff, Kim; Muir, Tessa; Hincks, Pamela; Biddle, Simon; Scarth, James.

In: Drug Testing And Analysis, 26.10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Viljanto, M, Kicman, AT, Walker, CJ, Wolff, K, Muir, T, Hincks, P, Biddle, S & Scarth, J 2019, 'Bioformation of boldenone and related precursors/metabolites in equine feces and urine, with relevance to doping control', Drug Testing And Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2706

APA

Viljanto, M., Kicman, A. T., Walker, C. J., Wolff, K., Muir, T., Hincks, P., Biddle, S., & Scarth, J. (2019). Bioformation of boldenone and related precursors/metabolites in equine feces and urine, with relevance to doping control. Drug Testing And Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2706

Vancouver

Viljanto M, Kicman AT, Walker CJ, Wolff K, Muir T, Hincks P et al. Bioformation of boldenone and related precursors/metabolites in equine feces and urine, with relevance to doping control. Drug Testing And Analysis. 2019 Oct 26. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2706

Author

Viljanto, Marjaana ; Kicman, Andrew T. ; Walker, Christopher J. ; Wolff, Kim ; Muir, Tessa ; Hincks, Pamela ; Biddle, Simon ; Scarth, James. / Bioformation of boldenone and related precursors/metabolites in equine feces and urine, with relevance to doping control. In: Drug Testing And Analysis. 2019.

Bibtex Download

@article{3ae41773ca334f92b63b90eedc8d4ac0,
title = "Bioformation of boldenone and related precursors/metabolites in equine feces and urine, with relevance to doping control",
abstract = "Boldenone (1‐dehydrotestosterone) is an exogenous anabolic‐androgenic steroid(AAS) but is also known to be endogenous in the entire male horse and potentiallyformed by microbes in voided urine, the gastrointestinal tract, or feed resulting inits detection in urine samples. In this study, equine fecal and urine samples were incubated in the presence of selected stable isotope labeled AAS precursors to investigatewhether microbial activity could result in 1‐dehydrogenation, in particular the formation of boldenone. Fecal matter was initially selected for investigation because of itshigh microbial activity, which could help to identify potential 1‐dehydrogenated biomarkers that might also be present in low quantities in urine. Fecal incubationsdisplayed Δ1‐dehydrogenase activity, as evidenced by the use of isotope labeled precursors to show the formation of boldenone and boldione from testosterone andandrostenedione, as well as the formation of Δ1‐progesterone and boldione fromprogesterone. Unlabeled forms were also produced in unspiked fecal samples withΔ1‐progesterone being identified for the first time. Subsequent incubation of urinesamples with the labeled AAS precursors demonstrated that Δ1‐dehydrogenase activity can also occur in this matrix. In all urine samples where labeled boldenone orboldione were detected, labeled Δ1‐progesterone was also detected. Δ1‐progesterone was not detected any non‐incubated urine samples or following anadministration of boldenone undecylenate to one mare/filly. Δ1‐progesteroneappears to be a candidate for further investigation as a suitable biomarker to helpevaluate whether boldenone present in a urine sample may have arisen due to microbial activity rather than by its exogenous administration.",
keywords = "boldenone, equine, feces, urine, Δ1-progesterone",
author = "Marjaana Viljanto and Kicman, {Andrew T.} and Walker, {Christopher J.} and Kim Wolff and Tessa Muir and Pamela Hincks and Simon Biddle and James Scarth",
year = "2019",
month = oct,
day = "26",
doi = "10.1002/dta.2706",
language = "English",
journal = "Drug Testing And Analysis",
issn = "1942-7603",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Bioformation of boldenone and related precursors/metabolites in equine feces and urine, with relevance to doping control

AU - Viljanto, Marjaana

AU - Kicman, Andrew T.

AU - Walker, Christopher J.

AU - Wolff, Kim

AU - Muir, Tessa

AU - Hincks, Pamela

AU - Biddle, Simon

AU - Scarth, James

PY - 2019/10/26

Y1 - 2019/10/26

N2 - Boldenone (1‐dehydrotestosterone) is an exogenous anabolic‐androgenic steroid(AAS) but is also known to be endogenous in the entire male horse and potentiallyformed by microbes in voided urine, the gastrointestinal tract, or feed resulting inits detection in urine samples. In this study, equine fecal and urine samples were incubated in the presence of selected stable isotope labeled AAS precursors to investigatewhether microbial activity could result in 1‐dehydrogenation, in particular the formation of boldenone. Fecal matter was initially selected for investigation because of itshigh microbial activity, which could help to identify potential 1‐dehydrogenated biomarkers that might also be present in low quantities in urine. Fecal incubationsdisplayed Δ1‐dehydrogenase activity, as evidenced by the use of isotope labeled precursors to show the formation of boldenone and boldione from testosterone andandrostenedione, as well as the formation of Δ1‐progesterone and boldione fromprogesterone. Unlabeled forms were also produced in unspiked fecal samples withΔ1‐progesterone being identified for the first time. Subsequent incubation of urinesamples with the labeled AAS precursors demonstrated that Δ1‐dehydrogenase activity can also occur in this matrix. In all urine samples where labeled boldenone orboldione were detected, labeled Δ1‐progesterone was also detected. Δ1‐progesterone was not detected any non‐incubated urine samples or following anadministration of boldenone undecylenate to one mare/filly. Δ1‐progesteroneappears to be a candidate for further investigation as a suitable biomarker to helpevaluate whether boldenone present in a urine sample may have arisen due to microbial activity rather than by its exogenous administration.

AB - Boldenone (1‐dehydrotestosterone) is an exogenous anabolic‐androgenic steroid(AAS) but is also known to be endogenous in the entire male horse and potentiallyformed by microbes in voided urine, the gastrointestinal tract, or feed resulting inits detection in urine samples. In this study, equine fecal and urine samples were incubated in the presence of selected stable isotope labeled AAS precursors to investigatewhether microbial activity could result in 1‐dehydrogenation, in particular the formation of boldenone. Fecal matter was initially selected for investigation because of itshigh microbial activity, which could help to identify potential 1‐dehydrogenated biomarkers that might also be present in low quantities in urine. Fecal incubationsdisplayed Δ1‐dehydrogenase activity, as evidenced by the use of isotope labeled precursors to show the formation of boldenone and boldione from testosterone andandrostenedione, as well as the formation of Δ1‐progesterone and boldione fromprogesterone. Unlabeled forms were also produced in unspiked fecal samples withΔ1‐progesterone being identified for the first time. Subsequent incubation of urinesamples with the labeled AAS precursors demonstrated that Δ1‐dehydrogenase activity can also occur in this matrix. In all urine samples where labeled boldenone orboldione were detected, labeled Δ1‐progesterone was also detected. Δ1‐progesterone was not detected any non‐incubated urine samples or following anadministration of boldenone undecylenate to one mare/filly. Δ1‐progesteroneappears to be a candidate for further investigation as a suitable biomarker to helpevaluate whether boldenone present in a urine sample may have arisen due to microbial activity rather than by its exogenous administration.

KW - boldenone

KW - equine

KW - feces

KW - urine

KW - Δ1-progesterone

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85075470064&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/dta.2706

DO - 10.1002/dta.2706

M3 - Article

JO - Drug Testing And Analysis

JF - Drug Testing And Analysis

SN - 1942-7603

ER -

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