Over the past two decades, driven by the enormous public health importance of bipolar disorder, research initiatives have begun to elucidate the pathophysiology of this prevalent and debilitating condition. These research initiatives have led to breakthroughs in our understanding of causation, and now promise to foster the development of novel treatments. This new edition presents contributions from the leaders at the forefront of these areas of research, and includes chapters on the groundbreaking advances in the fields of genetics, neuroimaging, neuropsychopharmacology, oxidative stress and neuronal resilience, inflammatory mechanisms, psychosocial factors, childhood onset and late-life bipolar disorder, and many other important areas. Throughout, the therapeutic implications and potential of this new understanding are emphasized. This will be essential reading for those interested in the neurobiology of mental illness, and will be of interest to mental health practitioners more generally.