Bolaamphiphile analogues of 12-bis-THA Cl2 are potent antimicrobial therapeutics with distinct mechanisms of action against bacterial, mycobacterial, and fungal pathogens

Simona Di Blasio, Maria Clarke, Charlotte K. Hind, Masanori Asai, Louis Laurence, Angelica Benvenuti, Mahnoor Hassan, Manare Molahlegi Dorothy Semenya, Dede Kwun-Wai Man, Victoria Horrocks, Giorgia Manzo, Sarah Van Der Lith, Eugenio Gentile, Carolyn Lam, Callum Annette, Janine Bosse, Yanwen Li, Barry Panaretou, Paul Langford, Brian D. RobertsonJenny K. W. Lam, John Sutton, Michael McArthur, James Mason

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3 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

12-bis-THA Cl2 (12,12'-(dodecane-1,12-diyl) bis (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridinium) chloride) is a cationic bolalipid adapted from dequalinium chloride (DQC), a bactericidal anti-infective indicated for bacterial vaginosis (BV). Here we use a structure-activity-relationship study to show that the factors that determine effective killing of bacterial, fungal and mycobacterial pathogens differ, to generate new analogues with a broader spectrum of activity, and to identify synergistic relationships, most notably with aminoglycosides against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where the bactericidal killing rate was substantially increased. Like DQC, 12-bis-THA Cl2 and its analogues accumulate within bacteria and fungi. More hydrophobic analogues with larger headgroups show reduced potential for DNA binding but increased and broader spectrum antibacterial activity. In contrast, analogues with less bulky headgroups and stronger DNA binding affinity were more active against Candida spp. Shortening the interconnecting chain, from the most lipophilic twelve-carbon chain to six, improves the selectivity index against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, but only the longer chain analogue was therapeutic in a Galleria mellonella infection model, with the shorter chain analogue exacerbating the infection. In vivo therapy of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and EMRSA-15 infections in Galleria mellonella also achieved with longer chain analogues but therapy of P. aeruginosa RP73 infection with the bolaamphiphile/tobramycin combination fails. The present study shows how this class of bolalipids may be adapted further to enable a wider range of potential applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00508-22
JournalmSphere
Volume8
Issue number1
Early online date13 Dec 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Dec 2022

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