Despite the high prevalence of ischemic heart diseases worldwide, no antibody-based treatment currently exists. Starting from the evidence that a specific isoform of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1 (BMP1.3) is particularly elevated in both patients and animal models of myocardial infarction, here we assess whether its inhibition by a specific monoclonal antibody reduces cardiac fibrosis. We find that this treatment reduces collagen deposition and cross-linking, paralleled by enhanced cardiomyocyte survival, both in vivo and in primary cultures of cardiac cells. Mechanistically, we show that the anti-BMP1.3 monoclonal antibody inhibits Transforming Growth Factor β pathway, thus reducing myofibroblast activation and inducing cardioprotection through BMP5. Collectively, these data support the therapeutic use of anti-BMP1.3 antibodies to prevent cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduce collagen deposition and preserve cardiac function after ischemia.