Neurotechnology is set to expand rapidly in the coming years as technological innovations in hardware and software are translated to the clinical setting. Given our unique access to patients with neurologic disorders, expertise with which to guide appropriate treatments, and technical skills to implant brain–machine interfaces (BMIs), neurosurgeons have a key role to play in the progress of this field. We outline the current state and key challenges in this rapidly advancing field, including implant technology, implant recipients, implantation methodology, implant function, and ethical, regulatory, and economic considerations. Our key message is to encourage the neurosurgical community to proactively engage in collaborating with other health care professionals, engineers, scientists, ethicists, and regulators in tackling these issues. By doing so, we will equip ourselves with the skills and expertise to drive the field forward and avoid being mere technicians in an industry driven by those around us.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-147
Number of pages8
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
Early online date13 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Bioethics
  • Brain–computer interface
  • Brain–machine interface
  • Microelectrode
  • Neuroprostheses
  • Neurotechnology


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