Surgical and minimally-invasive procedures, including cardiac and radiological, have high-stake patient outcomes. Working pressures, altering shift rotas, and ever-increasing demands have led to worsening sleep patterns for surgeons and allied professionals. Sleep deprivation alone has harmful consequences in relation to clinical outcomes and the physical and mental health of the surgeon, and to offset fatigue, some surgeons use legal stimulants such as caffeine and energy drinks. This stimulant use, however, may come at the cost of negative effects on cognitive and physical function. We aimed to explore evidence behind the use of caffeine, and its consequences on technical performance and clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-201
Number of pages4
JournalBritish Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number3
Early online date16 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Human factors
  • Patient care
  • Performance
  • Wellbeing
  • Caffeine


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