Camera-based Prospective Motion Correction in Paediatric Epilepsy Patients Enables EEG-fMRI Localization Even in High-motion States

Mirja Steinbrenner, Amy McDowell, Maria Centeno, Friederike Moeller, Suejen Perani, Sara Lorio, Danilo Maziero, David W. Carmichael*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: EEG-fMRI is a useful additional test to localize the epileptogenic zone (EZ) particularly in MRI negative cases. However subject motion presents a particular challenge owing to its large effects on both MRI and EEG signal. Traditionally it is assumed that prospective motion correction (PMC) of fMRI precludes EEG artifact correction. Methods: Children undergoing presurgical assessment at Great Ormond Street Hospital were included into the study. PMC of fMRI was done using a commercial system with a Moiré Phase Tracking marker and MR-compatible camera. For retrospective EEG correction both a standard and a motion educated EEG artefact correction (REEGMAS) were compared to each other. Results: Ten children underwent simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Overall head movement was high (mean RMS velocity < 1.5 mm/s) and showed high inter- and intra-individual variability. Comparing motion measured by the PMC camera and the (uncorrected residual) motion detected by realignment of fMRI images, there was a five-fold reduction in motion from its prospective correction. Retrospective EEG correction using both standard approaches and REEGMAS allowed the visualization and identification of physiological noise and epileptiform discharges. Seven of 10 children had significant maps, which were concordant with the clinical EZ hypothesis in 6 of these 7. Conclusion: To our knowledge this is the first application of camera-based PMC for MRI in a pediatric clinical setting. Despite large amount of movement PMC in combination with retrospective EEG correction recovered data and obtained clinically meaningful results during high levels of subject motion. Practical limitations may currently limit the widespread use of this technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-337
Number of pages19
JournalBrain topography
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • Drug-resistant epilepsy
  • EEG-fMRI
  • Pediatric epilepsy
  • Prospective motion correction


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