Cardiovascular Damage in COVID-19: What We Know Two Years Later

Vincenzo Nuzzi, Eva Del Mestre, Alessia Degrassi, Daniel I. Bromage, Paolo Manca, Susan Piper, Jessica Artico, Piero Gentile, Paul A. Scott, Mario Chiatto, Marco Merlo, Nilesh Pareek, Mauro Giacca, Gianfranco Sinagra, Theresa A. McDonagh, Antonio Cannata*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose of the Review: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly influenced cardiological clinical and basic research in the past two years. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on myocardial involvement in COVID-19, providing an overview on the incidence, the pathogenetic mechanisms, and the clinical implications of cardiac injury in this setting. Recent Findings: The possibility of heart involvement in patients with COVID-19 has received great attention since the beginning of the pandemic. After more than two years, several steps have been taken in understanding the mechanisms and the incidence of cardiac injury during COVID-19 infection. Similarly, studies globally have clarified the implications of co-existing heart disease and COVID-19. Summary: Severe COVID-19 infection may be complicated by myocardial injury. To date, a direct damage from the virus has not been demonstrated. The presence of myocardial injury should be systematically assessed for a prognostication purpose and for possible therapeutic implications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1085-1091
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent cardiology reports
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • Acute cardiac damage
  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiovascular injury
  • COVID-19


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