CardioXplorer: An Open-Source Modular Teleoperative Robotic Catheter Ablation System

Zhouyang Xu*, Aya Mutaz Zeidan, Yetao He, Lisa Leung, Calum Byrne, Sachin Sabu, Yuanwei Wu, Zhiyue Chen, Steven E. Williams, Lukas Lindenroth, Jonathan Behar, Christopher Aldo Rinaldi, John Whitaker, Aruna Arujuna, Richard Housden, Kawal Rhode

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Atrial fibrillation, the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia, is treated by catheter ablation to isolate electrical triggers. Clinical trials on robotic catheter systems hold promise for improving the safety and efficacy of the procedure. However, expense and proprietary designs hinder accessibility to such systems. This paper details an open-source, modular, three-degree-of-freedom robotic platform for teleoperating commercial ablation catheters through joystick navigation. We also demonstrate a catheter-agnostic handle interface permitting customization with commercial catheters. Collaborating clinicians performed benchtop targeting trials, comparing manual and robotic catheter navigation performance. The robot reduced task duration by 1.59 s across participants and five trials. Validation through mean motion jerk analysis revealed 35.2% smoother robotic navigation for experts (≥10 years experience) compared to the intermediate group. Yet, both groups achieved smoother robot motion relative to the manual approach, with the experts and intermediates exhibiting 42.2% and 13.6% improvements, respectively. These results highlight the potential of this system for enhancing catheter-based procedures. The source code and designs of CardioXplorer have been made publicly available to lower boundaries and drive innovations that enhance procedure efficacy beyond human capabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number80
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • medical robots and systems
  • open-source robotics
  • surgical robotics


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