Although the antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination has been studied extensively at the polyclonal level using immune sera, little has been reported on the antibody response at the monoclonal level. Here, we isolate a panel of 44 anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from an individual who received two doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine at a 12-week interval. We show that, despite a relatively low serum neutralization titer, Spike-reactive IgG+ B cells are still detectable 9 months post-boost. Furthermore, mAbs with potent neutralizing activity against the current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Delta, and Omicron) are present. The vaccine-elicited neutralizing mAbs form eight distinct competition groups and bind epitopes overlapping with neutralizing mAbs elicited following SARS-CoV-2 infection. AZD1222-elicited mAbs are more mutated than mAbs isolated from convalescent donors 1–2 months post-infection. These findings provide molecular insights into the AZD1222 vaccine-elicited antibody response.