Background: Myocardial quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) may offer better specificity to iron than conventional T 2* imaging in the assessment of cardiac diseases, including intra-myocardial hemorrhage. However, the precision and repeatability of cardiac QSM have not yet been characterized. The aim of this study is to characterize these key metrics in a healthy volunteer cohort and show the feasibility of the method in patients. Methods: Free breathing respiratory-navigated multi-echo 3D gradient echo images were acquired, from which QSM maps were reconstructed using the Morphology Enhanced Dipole Inversion toolbox. This technique was first evaluated in a susceptibility phantom containing tubes with known concentrations of gadolinium. In vivo characterization of myocardial QSM was then performed in a cohort of 10 healthy volunteers where each subject was scanned twice. Mean segment susceptibility, precision (standard deviation of voxel magnetic susceptibilities within one segment), and repeatability (absolute difference in segment mean susceptibility between repeats) of QSM were calculated for each American Heart Association (AHA) myocardial segment. Finally, the feasibility of the method was shown in 10 patients, including four with hemorrhagic infarcts. Results: The phantom experiment showed a strong linear relationship between measured and predicted susceptibility shifts (R 2 > 0.99). For the healthy volunteer cohort, AHA segment analysis showed the mean segment susceptibility was 0.00 ± 0.02 ppm, the mean precision was 0.05 ± 0.04 ppm, and the mean repeatability was 0.02 ± 0.02 ppm. Cardiac QSM was successfully performed in all patients. Focal iron deposits were successfully visualized in the patients with hemorrhagic myocardial infarctions. Conclusion: The precision and repeatability of cardiac QSM were successfully characterized in phantom and in vivo experiments. The feasibility of the technique was also successfully demonstrated in patients. While challenges still remain, further clinical evaluation of the technique is now warranted. Trial Registration: This work does not report on a health care intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101000
Pages (from-to)101000
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Issue number1
Early online date16 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2024


Dive into the research topics of 'Characterization of quantitative susceptibility mapping in the left ventricular myocardium'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this