Chemokine Pathways in Cutaneous Melanoma: Their Modulation by Cancer and Exploitation by the Clinician

Rebecca Adams, Bernhard Moser, Sophia N Karagiannis, Katie Elizabeth Lacy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
48 Downloads (Pure)


The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma is rising globally and is projected to continue to rise. Advances in immunotherapy over the last decade have demonstrated that manipulation of the immune cell compartment of tumours is a valuable weapon in the arsenal against cancer; however, limitations to treatment still exist. Cutaneous melanoma lesions feature a dense cell infiltrate, coordinated by chemokines, which control the positioning of all immune cells. Melanomas are able to use chemokine pathways to preferentially recruit cells, which aid their growth, survival, invasion and metastasis, and which enhance their ability to evade anticancer immune responses. Aside from this, chemokine signalling can directly influence angiogenesis, invasion, lymph node, and distal metastases, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition-like processes and transendothelial migration. Understanding the interplay of chemokines, cancer cells, and immune cells may uncover future avenues for melanoma therapy, namely: identifying biomarkers for patient stratification, augmenting the effect of current and emerging therapies, and designing specific treatments to target chemokine pathways, with the aim to reduce melanoma pathogenicity, metastatic potential, and enhance immune cell-mediated cancer killing. The chemokine network may provide selective and specific targets that, if included in current therapeutic regimens, harbour potential to improve outcomes for patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5625
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Biomarkers
  • Chemokines
  • Immunotherapy
  • Melanoma
  • Targeted therapy
  • Tumour pathogenicity


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